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Acute Renal Failure – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatments

Acute renal failure is a result of an untreated chronic kidney disease. This failure of the kidneys occurs when one or both kidneys, partly or completely, lose the ability to perform their basic function of filtering excessive water and waste stuff from the stream of blood. There occurs a continuous accumulation of the toxic substances in the body due to inability of the kidneys to remove them. These toxic substances can cause various health problems in the body, and also can prove fatal. The process of acute renal failure occurs quite rapidly than expected. It is different from renal insufficiency, which is milder dysfunction of the kidney.



Talking about kidney failure causes, there three types or sets of causes for acute renal failure.

  • The first set of causes is called Prerenal causes. The main cause here is depleted supply of blood to the kidneys. Other causes include dehydration (loss of bodily fluids) via excessive vomiting, sweating, fever and diarrhea. Other times, it might not be just loss, but also lesser intake of fluids in the first place plays a key cause of renal failure. Excessive water loss from the body can also occur due to medications like diuretics or water pills. Obstruction of a renal artery or vein resulting in abnormal blood flow and dysfunction of the kidney can also count as a main renal failure cause.
  • Renal causes are the second set, which includes causes like sepsis – meaning the sensitization of body immunity to such an extent that a little infection results in inflammation of the kidneys causing failures. Also, medications proving toxic to the kidney can also prove causes of acute renal failures. Sometimes there occurs a severe muscle breakdown in the body, and these broken corpses collect in the filters of the kidneys, clogging the pathway for kidney functions. This is also one cause of kidney failure


Though some people have an asymptotic failure of kidneys, i.e. it does not show any symptoms, but most of the times the failure occurs with quite a few subtle signs. Kidney failure symptoms can be aggregated in this manner. A sudden decrease in the production of urine, swelling of the body, problems with concentrating on a particular task and facing too much of confusion, increased lethargy and laziness, nausea and vomiting feelings time and again, severe diarrhea, abdominal ache and seems like gastric pain, a metal like taste in the mouth, and severe persistent fatigue are some common and mojor kidney failure symptoms.


Kidney failure diagnosis process can include of several tests, from the common blood and urine tests, to the complicated medical imaging tests like sonography. MRIs and X-rays are also suggested at times.


Kidney failure treatment includes kidney replacement as the first option. Dialysis is another measure to bring the body back to its functions. In dialysis, the kidney filters are cleared every fortnight and the toxic materials are allowed to exit the body. Dialysis is a mechanical process and has to be performed in a clinic or hospital and not at home. Other supplementary measures are reduction of salt, potassium, phosphorus, and protein intake, an increase in the consumption of fluid, cease smoking, pose a control on the blood pressure, weight reduction, and so on. 

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